Spring Security添加图形验证码

添加验证码大致可以分为三个步骤:根据随机数生成验证码图片;将验证码图片显示到登录页面;认证流程中加入验证码校验。Spring Security的认证校验是由UsernamePasswordAuthenticationFilter过滤器完成的,所以我们的验证码校验逻辑应该在这个过滤器之前。下面一起学习下如何在上一节Spring Security自定义用户认证的基础上加入验证码校验功能。

生成图形验证码

验证码功能需要用到spring-social-config依赖:

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<dependency>
<groupId>org.springframework.social</groupId>
<artifactId>spring-social-config</artifactId>
</dependency>

首先定义一个验证码对象ImageCode:

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public class ImageCode {
private BufferedImage image;
private String code;
private LocalDateTime expireTime;
public ImageCode(BufferedImage image, String code, int expireIn) {
this.image = image;
this.code = code;
this.expireTime = LocalDateTime.now().plusSeconds(expireIn);
}
public ImageCode(BufferedImage image, String code, LocalDateTime expireTime) {
this.image = image;
this.code = code;
this.expireTime = expireTime;
}
boolean isExpire() {
return LocalDateTime.now().isAfter(expireTime);
}
// get,set 略
}

ImageCode对象包含了三个属性:image图片,code验证码和expireTime过期时间。isExpire方法用于判断验证码是否已过期。

接着定义一个ValidateCodeController,用于处理生成验证码请求:

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@RestController
public class ValidateController {
public final static String SESSION_KEY_IMAGE_CODE = "SESSION_KEY_IMAGE_CODE";
private SessionStrategy sessionStrategy = new HttpSessionSessionStrategy();
@GetMapping("/code/image")
public void createCode(HttpServletRequest request, HttpServletResponse response) throws IOException {
ImageCode imageCode = createImageCode();
sessionStrategy.setAttribute(new ServletWebRequest(request), SESSION_KEY, imageCode);
ImageIO.write(imageCode.getImage(), "jpeg", response.getOutputStream());
}
}

createImageCode方法用于生成验证码对象,org.springframework.social.connect.web.HttpSessionSessionStrategy对象封装了一些处理Session的方法,包含了setAttributegetAttributeremoveAttribute方法,具体可以查看该类的源码。使用sessionStrategy将生成的验证码对象存储到Session中,并通过IO流将生成的图片输出到登录页面上。

其中createImageCode方法代码如下所示:

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private ImageCode createImageCode() {
int width = 100; // 验证码图片宽度
int height = 36; // 验证码图片长度
int length = 4; // 验证码位数
int expireIn = 60; // 验证码有效时间 60s
BufferedImage image = new BufferedImage(width, height, BufferedImage.TYPE_INT_RGB);
Graphics g = image.getGraphics();
Random random = new Random();
g.setColor(getRandColor(200, 250));
g.fillRect(0, 0, width, height);
g.setFont(new Font("Times New Roman", Font.ITALIC, 20));
g.setColor(getRandColor(160, 200));
for (int i = 0; i < 155; i++) {
int x = random.nextInt(width);
int y = random.nextInt(height);
int xl = random.nextInt(12);
int yl = random.nextInt(12);
g.drawLine(x, y, x + xl, y + yl);
}
StringBuilder sRand = new StringBuilder();
for (int i = 0; i < length; i++) {
String rand = String.valueOf(random.nextInt(10));
sRand.append(rand);
g.setColor(new Color(20 + random.nextInt(110), 20 + random.nextInt(110), 20 + random.nextInt(110)));
g.drawString(rand, 13 * i + 6, 16);
}
g.dispose();
return new ImageCode(image, sRand.toString(), expireIn);
}
private Color getRandColor(int fc, int bc) {
Random random = new Random();
if (fc > 255) {
fc = 255;
}
if (bc > 255) {
bc = 255;
}
int r = fc + random.nextInt(bc - fc);
int g = fc + random.nextInt(bc - fc);
int b = fc + random.nextInt(bc - fc);
return new Color(r, g, b);
}

生成验证码的方法写好后,接下来开始改造登录页面。

改造登录页

在登录页面加上如下代码:

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<span style="display: inline">
<input type="text" name="imageCode" placeholder="验证码" style="width: 50%;"/>
<img src="/code/image"/>
</span>

<img>标签的src属性对应ValidateController的createImageCode方法。

要使生成验证码的请求不被拦截,需要在BrowserSecurityConfigconfigure方法中配置免拦截:

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@Override
protected void configure(HttpSecurity http) throws Exception {
http.formLogin() // 表单登录
// http.httpBasic() // HTTP Basic
.loginPage("/authentication/require") // 登录跳转 URL
.loginProcessingUrl("/login") // 处理表单登录 URL
.successHandler(authenticationSucessHandler) // 处理登录成功
.failureHandler(authenticationFailureHandler) // 处理登录失败
.and()
.authorizeRequests() // 授权配置
.antMatchers("/authentication/require",
"/login.html",
"/image/code").permitAll() // 无需认证的请求路径
.anyRequest() // 所有请求
.authenticated() // 都需要认证
.and().csrf().disable();
}

重启项目,访问http://localhost:8080/login.html,效果如下:

QQ截图20180715105219.png

认证流程添加验证码校验

在校验验证码的过程中,可能会抛出各种验证码类型的异常,比如“验证码错误”、“验证码已过期”等,所以我们定义一个验证码类型的异常类:

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public class ValidateCodeException extends AuthenticationException {
private static final long serialVersionUID = 5022575393500654458L;
ValidateCodeException(String message) {
super(message);
}
}

注意,这里继承的是AuthenticationException而不是Exception

我们都知道,Spring Security实际上是由许多过滤器组成的过滤器链,处理用户登录逻辑的过滤器为UsernamePasswordAuthenticationFilter,而验证码校验过程应该是在这个过滤器之前的,即只有验证码校验通过后采去校验用户名和密码。由于Spring Security并没有直接提供验证码校验相关的过滤器接口,所以我们需要自己定义一个验证码校验的过滤器ValidateCodeFilter

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@Component
public class ValidateCodeFilter extends OncePerRequestFilter {
@Autowired
private AuthenticationFailureHandler authenticationFailureHandler;
private SessionStrategy sessionStrategy = new HttpSessionSessionStrategy();
@Override
protected void doFilterInternal(HttpServletRequest httpServletRequest, HttpServletResponse httpServletResponse,
FilterChain filterChain) throws ServletException, IOException {
if (StringUtils.equalsIgnoreCase("/login", httpServletRequest.getRequestURI())
&& StringUtils.equalsIgnoreCase(httpServletRequest.getMethod(), "post")) {
try {
validateCode(new ServletWebRequest(httpServletRequest));
} catch (ValidateCodeException e) {
authenticationFailureHandler.onAuthenticationFailure(httpServletRequest, httpServletResponse, e);
return;
}
}
filterChain.doFilter(httpServletRequest, httpServletResponse);
}
private void validateCode(ServletWebRequest servletWebRequest) throws ServletRequestBindingException {
...
}
}

ValidateCodeFilter继承了org.springframework.web.filter.OncePerRequestFilter,该过滤器只会执行一次。

doFilterInternal方法中我们判断了请求URL是否为/login,该路径对应登录form表单的action路径,请求的方法是否为POST,是的话进行验证码校验逻辑,否则直接执行filterChain.doFilter让代码往下走。当在验证码校验的过程中捕获到异常时,调用Spring Security的校验失败处理器AuthenticationFailureHandler进行处理。

validateCode的校验逻辑如下所示:

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private void validateCode(ServletWebRequest servletWebRequest) throws ServletRequestBindingException {
ImageCode codeInSession = (ImageCode) sessionStrategy.getAttribute(servletWebRequest, ValidateController.SESSION_KEY);
String codeInRequest = ServletRequestUtils.getStringParameter(servletWebRequest.getRequest(), "imageCode");
if (StringUtils.isBlank(codeInRequest)) {
throw new ValidateCodeException("验证码不能为空!");
}
if (codeInSession == null) {
throw new ValidateCodeException("验证码不存在!");
}
if (codeInSession.isExpire()) {
sessionStrategy.removeAttribute(servletWebRequest, ValidateController.SESSION_KEY);
throw new ValidateCodeException("验证码已过期!");
}
if (!StringUtils.equalsIgnoreCase(codeInSession.getCode(), codeInRequest)) {
throw new ValidateCodeException("验证码不正确!");
}
sessionStrategy.removeAttribute(servletWebRequest, ValidateController.SESSION_KEY);
}

我们分别从Session中获取了ImageCode对象和请求参数imageCode(对应登录页面的验证码<input>name属性),然后进行了各种判断并抛出相应的异常。当验证码过期或者验证码校验通过时,我们便可以删除Session中的ImageCode属性了。

验证码校验过滤器定义好了,怎么才能将其添加到UsernamePasswordAuthenticationFilter前面呢?很简单,只需要在BrowserSecurityConfigconfigure方法中添加些许配置即可:

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@Autowired
private ValidateCodeFilter validateCodeFilter;
@Override
protected void configure(HttpSecurity http) throws Exception {
http.addFilterBefore(validateCodeFilter, UsernamePasswordAuthenticationFilter.class) // 添加验证码校验过滤器
.formLogin() // 表单登录
// http.httpBasic() // HTTP Basic
.loginPage("/authentication/require") // 登录跳转 URL
.loginProcessingUrl("/login") // 处理表单登录 URL
.successHandler(authenticationSucessHandler) // 处理登录成功
.failureHandler(authenticationFailureHandler) // 处理登录失败
.and()
.authorizeRequests() // 授权配置
.antMatchers("/authentication/require",
"/login.html",
"/image/code").permitAll() // 无需认证的请求路径
.anyRequest() // 所有请求
.authenticated() // 都需要认证
.and().csrf().disable();
}

上面代码中,我们注入了ValidateCodeFilter,然后通过addFilterBefore方法将ValidateCodeFilter验证码校验过滤器添加到了UsernamePasswordAuthenticationFilter前面。

大功告成,重启项目,访问http://localhost:8080/login.html,当不输入验证码时点击登录,页面显示如下:

QQ截图20180715114011.png

当输入错误的验证码时点击登录,页面显示如下:

QQ截图20180715114052.png

当页面加载60秒后再输入验证码点击登录,页面显示如下:

QQ截图20180715114539.png

当验证码通过,并且用户名密码正确时,页面显示如下:

QQ截图20180715114654.png

源码链接 https://github.com/wuyouzhuguli/SpringAll/tree/master/36.Spring-Security-ValidateCode


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