Docker Compose

部署一个应用可能需要用到多个Docker容器,比如MySQL,Redis,Nginx等,单独的去管理每个容器可能会比较麻烦。Docker Compose可以通过一个yml文件来统一管理这些容器,可以极大简化我们的应用部署过程。这里以部署WordPress为例,介绍如何使用Docker Compose去统一管理多个Docker容器。

先来看看不用Docker Compose时部署WordPress的步骤。

Docker部署WordPress

安装MySQL

Docker拉取MySQL镜像:

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docker pull mysql:5.7.25

创建MySQL容器:

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docker run -d --name mysql -v mysql:/var/lib/mysql -e MYSQL_ROOT_PASSWORD=123456 -e MYSQL_DATABASE=wordpres s -p 3306:3306 mysql:5.7.25

安装WordPress

Docker拉取WordPress镜像:

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docker pull wordpress

创建WordPress容器:

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docker run -d -p 8080:80 --link mysql -e WORDPRESS_DB_HOST=mysql:3306 -e WORDPRESS_DB_USER=root -e WORDPRESS_DB_PASSWORD=123456 -e WORDPRESS_DB_NAME=wordpress wordpress

查看是否成功:

QQ截图20190412224456.png

Docker Compose部署WordPress

接下来看一下如何使用Docker Compose部署WordPress。在此之前,我们需要先删除上面创建的两个容器,然后安装Docker Compose,安装教程:https://docs.docker.com/compose/install/

查看是否安装成功:

QQ截图20190412224752.png

编写一个docker-compose.yml:

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vim docker-compose.yml

内容如下:

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version: '3'

services:
wordpress:
image: wordpress
ports:
- 8080:80
environment:
WORDPRESS_DB_HOST: mysql:3306
WORDPRESS_DB_NAME: wordpress
WORDPRESS_DB_USER: root
WORDPRESS_DB_PASSWORD: 123456
networks:
- my-bridge

mysql:
image: mysql:5.7.25
ports:
- 3306:3306
environment:
MYSQL_ROOT_PASSWORD: 123456
MYSQL_DATABASE: wordpress
volumes:
- mysql-data:/var/lib/mysql
networks:
- my-bridge

volumes:
mysql-data:

networks:
my-bridge:
driver: bridge

然后执行命令docker-compose up -d运行:

QQ截图20190412230554.png

查看WordPress是否部署成功:

QQ截图20190412224456.png

docker-compose.yml

上面例子中我们通过一个docker-compose.yml文件,运行docker-compose up命令一次性创建了两个容器:

docker-compose-by-aanand-prasad-5-6382.png

docker-compose.yml一般包含三个部分:services、networks和volumes。

services

一个service代表一个container,可以从Docker Hub的image创建,也可以通过本地的dockerfile创建的image来创建。

service类似于docker rundocker run支持的选项 service也可以用。

举两个例子:

基于镜像:

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services:
db:
image: mysql:5.7.25
volumes:
- mysql-data:/var/lib/mysql
networks:
- my-bridge

类似于命令:

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docker run -d --network my-bridge -v mysql-data:/var/lib/mysql mysql:5.7.25

基于dockerfile:

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services:
worker:
build: ./worker
links:
- db
- redis
networks:
- my-bridge

基于当前目录下worker/文件夹里的dockerfile构建container。

networks

一个networks的例子:

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networks:
my-bridge:
driver: bridge

等价于:

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docker network create -d bridge my-bridge

volumes

一个volumes的例子:

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volumes:
mysql-data:

等价于

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docker volume create mysql-data

现在回头看看刚刚的yml文件:

QQ截图20190413104017.png

version: 3表示基于第三版本docker-compose.yml语法构建,然后创建了两个容器wordpress和mysql,一个volume——mysql-data,一个network,名称为my-bridge,采用bridge网络模式。

在wordpress的定义中,使用image指定了基于wordpress镜像构建,ports进行端口映射,environment配置了wordpress镜像支持的环境变量,指定网络为my-bridge。

mysql的定义和wordpress类似,不再赘述。

更多docker-compose.yml支持的命令可以参考:https://www.jianshu.com/p/2217cfed29d7

docker-compose命令

看看docker-compose支持哪些命令:

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[root@mrbird vagrant]# docker-compose
Define and run multi-container applications with Docker.

Usage:
docker-compose [-f <arg>...] [options] [COMMAND] [ARGS...]
docker-compose -h|--help

Options:
-f, --file FILE Specify an alternate compose file
(default: docker-compose.yml)
-p, --project-name NAME Specify an alternate project name
(default: directory name)
--verbose Show more output
--log-level LEVEL Set log level (DEBUG, INFO, WARNING, ERROR, CRITICAL)
--no-ansi Do not print ANSI control characters
-v, --version Print version and exit
-H, --host HOST Daemon socket to connect to

--tls Use TLS; implied by --tlsverify
--tlscacert CA_PATH Trust certs signed only by this CA
--tlscert CLIENT_CERT_PATH Path to TLS certificate file
--tlskey TLS_KEY_PATH Path to TLS key file
--tlsverify Use TLS and verify the remote
--skip-hostname-check Don't check the daemon's hostname against the
name specified in the client certificate
--project-directory PATH Specify an alternate working directory
(default: the path of the Compose file)
--compatibility If set, Compose will attempt to convert keys
in v3 files to their non-Swarm equivalent

Commands:
build Build or rebuild services
bundle Generate a Docker bundle from the Compose file
config Validate and view the Compose file
create Create services
down Stop and remove containers, networks, images, and volumes
events Receive real time events from containers
exec Execute a command in a running container
help Get help on a command
images List images
kill Kill containers
logs View output from containers
pause Pause services
port Print the public port for a port binding
ps List containers
pull Pull service images
push Push service images
restart Restart services
rm Remove stopped containers
run Run a one-off command
scale Set number of containers for a service
start Start services
stop Stop services
top Display the running processes
unpause Unpause services
up Create and start containers
version Show the Docker-Compose version information

查看运行中的容器:

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docker-compose ps

停止:

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docker-compose stop

启动:

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docker-compose start

停止并删除(删除创建的network,volume,container):

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docker-compose down

参考🔗:https://docs.docker.com/compose/compose-file/


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